One year in bone: translational

Bone is a higly dynamic tissue that undergoes continuous destruction and rebuilding. This peculiar property is
known as bone remodelling, a dynamic process that is mandatory for the accomplishment of skeletal functions.
The coupling between bone formation and resorption is regulated in temporally and spatially coordinated manner
and many factors are involved in preserving bone balance. Indeed, recent two-photon microscopy enables
the observation in vivo that osteoblasts and osteoclasts mainly occupy discrete territories in the bone marrow,
although direct cell-to-cell contact exists in a spatio-temporally limited manner.
Recent acquisitions will be presented that involve the osteoclast secreted factors, including SLIT3. The distinguishing
feature of this factor, as compared with other clastokines, is that SLIT3 synchronously regulate bone
formation and bone resorption.
Moreover new insights will be presented regarding the osteoclast and osteoblast crosstalk mediated by the release
of membrane-limited vesicles. Extracellular vesicles (EV) represent a heterogeneous population of vesicles
characterized by exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. Although initially met with skepticism, their
presence is now well established as they represent an important means of cellular crosstalk. Indeed, it was shown
that cells by vesicles could share proteins, nucleic acids, and intact organelles, such as mitochondria.

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